Intrinsic and Extrinsic Control of Bioinspired Freeze Casting

Research into complex control of the bioinspired freeze casting process for structural and biomedical materials is ongoing in the Laboratory for Bioinspired Science and Engineering. This research focuses upon control through both intrinsic (enacted through internal chemical processes) and extrinsic (enacted through external forces) means to imitate the complex structures and impressive mechanical properties of biological materials.


National Science Foundation grant CMMI #1660979

ARO W911NF-21-1-0062

Selected Publications

(1) M. Mroz, J. Rosenberg, C. Acevedo, J. J. Kruzic, B. Raeymaekers, S. E. Naleway, “Ultrasound freeze-casting of a biomimetic layered microstructure in epoxy-ceramic composite materials to increase strength and hardness” Materialia (2020) 12, 100754.

(2) T. A. Ogden, M. Prisbrey, I. Nelson, B. Raeymaekers, S. E. Naleway, “Ultrasound freeze casting: Fabricating bioinspired porous scaffolds through combining freeze casting and ultrasound directed self-assembly” Materials & Design (2019) 164, 107561.

(3) I. Nelson, L. Gardner, K. Carlson, S. E. Naleway, “Freeze casting of iron oxide subject to a tri-axial nested Helmholtz-coils driven uniform magnetic field for tailored porous scaffolds” Acta Materialia (2019) 173, 106-116.

(4) I. Nelson, S. E. Naleway, “Intrinsic and extrinsic control of freeze casting” Journal of Materials Research and Technology (2019) 8, 2372-2385.


Extrinsic Control of Additive Manufacturing


Beyond freeze-casting, our lab is actively investigating the use of energized fields (e.g., magnetic, ultrasound) to control the structure and properties of a variety of additive manufacturing techniques including 3D printing and sol-gel processing.


National Science Foundation grant CMMI #2017588

Selected Publications

(1) K. Baskaran, M. Ali, K. Gingrich, D. L. Porter, S. Chong, B. J. Riley, C. W. Peak, S. E. Naleway, I. Zharov, K. Carlson, “Sol-gel derived silica: A review of polymer-tailored properties for energy and environmental applications” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2022) 336, 111874.

(2) J. Alexander, K. Baskaran, A. Harward, K. Carlson, S. E. Naleway, “Bioinspired aligned magnetic features in aerogels for humidity sensing” Materials Chemistry and Physics (2021) 270, 124852.

(3) P. Wadsworth, I. Nelson, D. L. Porter, B. Raeymaekers, S. E. Naleway, “Manufacturing bioinspired flexible materials using ultrasound directed self-assembly and 3D printing” Materials & Design (2020) 185, 108243.

Mineralized Biomaterials for Dental and Orthopedic Applications

Novel, mineralized biomaterials are under development for both bone and dental applications. The use of complex chemistries and advanced manufacturing processes allow for tailored properties that can better fit patient needs.


Utah Science Technology and Research Initiative (USTAR) Science and Technology Initiation Grant (STIG)

Selected Publications

(1) T. J. Yin, S. Jeyapalina, S. E. Naleway, “Characterization of porous fluorohydroxyapatite bone-scaffolds fabricated using freeze casting” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials (2021) 123, 104717.

(2) J. R. Howard, L. Gardner, Z. Saife, A. Geleil, I. Nelson, J. S. Colombo, S. E. Naleway, K. Carlson, “Synthesis and characterization of novel calcium phosphate glass-derived cements for vital pulp therapy” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine (2020) 31, 12.

Structural Design of Biological Materials


To perform bioinspired science and engineering, a deeper understanding of the properties and structures present within biological materials is required. This can be achieved through the process of biological materials science, which employs the tools and techniques available in the fields of engineering, chemistry and physics to theoretically and physically dissect natural organisms and understand how they thrive within their natural environments. In the Laboratory for Bioinspired Science and Engineering research is ongoing to understand the common structural design elements that are employed by nature to provide impressive mechanical properties. In particular, out current interests focus on the study of organisms from kingdom Fungi.

Selected Publications

(1) D. L. Porter, A. J. Bradshaw, R. H. Nielsen, P. Newell, B. T. M. Dentinger, S. E. Naleway, “The melanized layer of Armillaria ostoyae rhizomorphs: Its protective role and functions” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials (2022) 125, 104934.

(2) E. A. Beseris, S. E. Naleway, D. R. Carrier, “Impact protection potential of mammalian hair: Testing the pugilism hypothesis of human facial hair” Integrative Organismal Biology (2020) 2, obaa005.

(3) S. E. Naleway, M. M. Porter, J. McKittrick, M. A. Meyers, “Structural design elements in biological materials: Application to bioinspiration” Advanced Materials (2015) 27, 5455-5476.